Life in the Middle East is changing. The United States is not involved in a major military conflict there. Israel and a number of Arab states have established diplomatic relations, leading to a stronger front against Iran’s regional ambitions. A new normal is emerging at the same time as the old normal persists — a tragic conflict in Yemen, lack of resolution of the Palestinian/Israeli conflict, and economic insecurity in many of the region’s countries. As the United States turns more of its attention towards China, how should it re-fashion its approach to the Middle East in a way that promotes long-term positive change? How can diplomacy, trade, cultural exchanges and other non-military instruments of foreign policy be more effectively deployed to protect American interests in the Middle East?